The island of Cyprus becomes part of the Eastern Roman Empire, later to be known as Byzantine Empire. Eastern Orthodox Christianity becomes widespread on the island. Throughout the Byzantine period the Arabs attack Cyprus, and for several centuries the Byzantines and the Arabs rule the island jointly (condominium).
During the Third Crusade, Richard I of England captures the island and sells it to the Knights Templars. The latter, failing to rule the island, return it to Richard, who then sells it to Guy of Lusignan. Guy establishes the ‘Kingdom of Cyprus’, in which the Catholic Church enjoys an elevated status.
The Venetian Caterina Cornaro, Queen of Cyprus and wife of the last Lusignan king, is practically overthrown by the Venetians and the island is annexed to the Republic of Venice.
The Ottomans conquer Cyprus. The island remains part of the Ottoman Empire for more than three centuries. A significant Muslim community is established on the island.
The United Kingdom reaches an agreement with the Ottoman Empire and takes control of Cyprus. Several years later the island will be formally annexed to the British Empire and become a British Crown colony.
During the anti-colonial struggle for Enosis with Greece by the Greek Cypriot Organization EOKA, fierce inter-communal conflict between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots breaks out, the latter leading to the formation of the anti-Enosis and pro-Partition Turkish Cypriot Organization TMT.
Because of the inter-communal violence between Turkish Cypriots and Greek Cypriots, the British army sets barbed wire roadblocks, known as the Mason Dixon Line, which divide the city of Nicosia. The Line practically follows the path of two of the most commercial streets, Paphos and Ermou Streets. Displacements take place in Nicosia between the years 1956 and 1958.
Cyprus attains independence after the Zürich and London Agreements between the United Kingdom, Greece and Turkey, who act as the island’s Guarantors. The UK retains two Sovereign Base Areas in Akrotiri and Dhekelia.
More inter-communal conflict erupts and many people are displaced. The United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) is deployed in the island. The Green Line, drawn on the previous Mason Dixon Line, is institutionalized and physically divides the city of Nicosia into a Greek-Cypriot and a Turkish-Cypriot sector.
On July 15, a coup d'état is carried out against the Republic of Cyprus, supported by the Greek military junta, allegedly in order to unite the island with Greece. President Makarios III is ousted and replaced by Nikos Sampson. On July 20, Turkey stages the Attila military operation on the grounds of its duty as one of the three guarantor powers to restore the constitutional order of the Republic. On August 14, the Turkish army launches the second phase of the Attila operation seizing the control of the 37% of the island. Several thousands of people are displaced. Since then, the island remains de facto divided into two geographical areas, with the Greek Cypriot community living in the southern part and the Turkish Cypriot community living in the northern part of the island.
The Nicosia Sewerage Network is reconnected and the Nicosia Master Plan is established to prepare for the joint future development of the city
Dedicated support is made available to civil society organizations in Cyprus for the first time through the USAID/UNDP Bi-communal Development Program.
The Ledra Palace checkpoint becomes the first to open after several years, allowing people to cross from one side of the island to the other.
A UN proposed Foundation Agreement for ‘The Comprehensive Settlement of the Cyprus Problem’, known as the ‘Annan Plan’ is put to the public vote through separate simultaneous referenda on April 24, 2004. 65% of the Turkish Cypriot Community approves it, while 76% of the Greek Cypriot Community rejects it. It therefore does not enter into force.
The Republic of Cyprus joins the European Union (EU) but the acquis communautaire is suspended in the Turkish Cypriot community.
The Green Line Trade Regulations are adopted to facilitate commerce between the two communities.
The Ledra Street/Lokmaci checkpoint opens in Nicosia.
The Home for Cooperation, a space for civil society and bi-communal initiatives, is opened in the Buffer Zone in Nicosia.
The Chambers of Commerce and relevant authorities in both communities co-operate to mitigate the impact of a power outage in the Greek Cypriot community caused by an explosion at the naval base in Mari that heavily affected the main power station of the southern part of the island.
Co-operation between the Chambers of Commerce and the relevant authorities in the two communities mitigates the effects of a serious oil spill near the island's northern peninsula.
Music by Monsieur Doumani